Smith chart antenna-theory.com/tutorial/smith…
J.Héctor García XE2K @XE2K
After so many Drones in the news, Why not an 160m Vertical wire array supported by Drones ? can be the future?
There were no changes to this section that I could find…Dan
Antenna safety is also of primary concern. There are two aspects of antenna safety—being safe when installing an antenna and safely operating an antenna.
When putting up an antenna tower, an important safety precaution is to look for and stay clear of any overhead electrical wires. (T0B04) When installing an antenna, make sure that it is far enough from power lines, so that if the antenna falls unexpectedly, no part of it can come closer than 10 feet to the power wires. (T0B06) This is the reason you should avoid attaching an antenna to a utility pole. The antenna could contact high-voltage power wires. (T0B09)
You also should position the antenna so that no one can touch it while you are transmitting. If a person accidentally touched your antenna while you were transmitting, they might receive a painful RF burn. (T0C07)
Another safety tip is to use a gin pole designed for use with the tower that you’re installing. The purpose of a gin pole is to lift tower sections or antennas. (T0B05)
At all times when any work is being done on the tower, members of a tower work team should wear a hard hat and safety glasses. (T0B01) Before climbing an antenna tower, it is a good precaution to put on a climbing harness and safety glasses. (T0B02) It is never safe to climb a tower without a helper or observer. (T0B03) When using a crank-up tower, an important safety rule to remember is that this type of tower must never be climbed unless it is in the fully retracted position. (T0B07)
Grounding is very important when installing a tower because the tower is basically a big lightning rod. Local electrical codes establish grounding requirements for an amateur radio tower or antenna. (T0B11)
Separate eight-foot long ground rods for each tower leg, bonded to the tower and each other is considered to be a proper grounding method for a tower. (T0B08) When installing ground wires on a tower for lightning protection, it is good practice to ensure that connections are short and direct. (T0B12) Sharp bends must be avoided when installing grounding conductors used for lightning protection. (T0B10)
Lightning can also be conducted down a feedline and into your shack. To prevent this, several manufacturers make devices designed to shunt this current to ground before it gets into the shack. When installing devices for lightning protection in a coaxial cable feedline, ground all of the protectors to a common plate which is in turn connected to an external ground. (T0A07)
In the 2010 study guide, this section was part of the section on feedlines and connectors. I think it makes more sense to separate it like I have here. There is one added question in this section T7C13 asks what a dummy load consists of…Dan
Standing wave ratio is a term you’ll often hear when talking about antennas and feedlines. In general terms, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of how well a load is matched to a transmission line. (T7C03) In this context, the “load” is the antenna. When we say that an antenna is matched to a transmission line, we mean that the impedance of the transmission line is equal to the impedance of the antenna.
The reason it is important to have a low SWR in an antenna system that uses coaxial cable feedline is to allow the efficient transfer of power and reduce losses. (T9B01) The bigger the mismatch is between the feedline and the load, the higher the SWR will be, and the more power you will lose in the feedline. Power lost in a feedline is converted into heat. (T7C07) Power converted into heat is not radiated by the antenna, meaning your radiated signal will be weaker.
You can measure the SWR of your antenna system with an SWR meter. You usually connect the SWR meter near the output of your transmitter because it is important to have a low SWR at that point. A directional wattmeter is an instrument other than an SWR meter that you could use to determine if a feedline and antenna are properly matched. (T7C08)
1 to 1 is the reading on an SWR meter indicates a perfect impedance match between the antenna and the feedline. (T7C04) 2 to 1 is the approximate SWR value above which the protection circuits in most solid-state transmitters begin to reduce transmitter power. (T7C05) An SWR reading of 4:1 means that there is an impedance mismatch. (T7C06)
One way to ensure that the impedance of the antenna system matches the output impedance of transmitter is to use an antenna tuner. An antenna tuner matches the antenna system impedance to the transceiver’s output impedance. (T9B04)
In addition to the SWR meter and the directional wattmeter, there are a couple of other types of test instruments commonly found in an amateur’s “shack.” One instrument that every shack should have is the dummy load. A dummy load consists of a non-inductive resistor and a heat sink. (T7C13) The primary purpose of a dummy load is to prevent the radiation of signals when making tests. (T7C01)
Another common test instrument is the antenna analyzer. An antenna analyzer is an instrument that can be used to determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired operating frequency. (T7C02) You can also make a number of other measurements that will help you set up an antenna system, such as SWR, capacitance, and inductance.
In the 2010 study guide, I also included questions about SWR and antenna measurements in this section. For 2014, however, I’ve decided to make that a separate section…Dan
Feedlines connect radios to antennas. There are many different types of feedlines, but coaxial cable is used more often than any other feedline for amateur radio antenna systems because it is easy to use and requires few special installation considerations. (T9B03) A common use of coaxial cable is carrying RF signals between a radio and antenna. (T7C12) Note, however, that the loss increases as the frequency of a signal passing through coaxial cable is increased. (T9B05)
When choosing a feedline, it is important to match the impedance of the feedline to the output impedance of the transmitter and the input impedance of the antenna. Impedance is a measure of the opposition to AC current flow in a circuit. (T5C12) Ohms are the units of impedance. (T5C13)
Most amateur radio transmitters are designed to have an output impedance of 50 ohms. Because that is the case, the impedance of the most commonly used coaxial cable in typical amateur radio installations is 50 ohms. (T9B02)
RG-58 and RG-8 are two types of coaxial cable often used in amateur radio stations. Both have an impedance of 50 ohms, but there are important differences between the two. One electrical difference between the smaller RG-58 and larger RG-8 coaxial cables is that RG-8 cable has less loss at a given frequency. (T9B10) The type of coax that has the lowest loss at VHF and UHF is air-insulated hard line. (T9B11)
Moisture contamination is the most common cause for failure of coaxial cables. (T7C09) One way that moisture enters a cable is via cracks in the cable’s outer jacket. The reason that the outer jacket of coaxial cable should be resistant to ultraviolet light is that ultraviolet light can damage the jacket and allow water to enter the cable.(T7C10) A disadvantage of “air core” coaxial cable when compared to foam or solid dielectric types is that it requires special techniques to prevent water absorption. (T7C11)
PL-259 connectors are the most common type of connectors used on coaxial cables in amateur radio stations. One thing that is true of PL-259 type coax connectors is that they are commonly used at HF frequencies. (T9B07)
One problem with PL-259 connectors is that they are not the most suitable connector when operating at higher frequencies. Instead, a Type N connector is most suitable for frequencies above 400 MHz. (T9B06)
No matter what type of connector you use, coax connectors exposed to the weather should be sealed against water intrusion to prevent an increase in feedline loss. (T9B08) Also make sure to tighten connectors well. Also make sure that your antenna connections are tight and the connectors are soldered properly. A loose connection in an antenna or a feedline might cause erratic changes in SWR readings. (T9B09)
Three questions were added to this section, the question on antenna loading and two on mobile antenna installation. I think these are good changes…Dan
The most common, and perhaps the simplest, antenna is the half-wave dipole antenna. As the name suggests, it measures close to one half wavelength from one end of the antenna to the other. A simple dipole mounted so the conductor is parallel to the Earth’s surface is a horizontally polarized antenna. (T9A03) The direction that radiation is strongest from a half-wave dipole antenna in free space is broadside to the antenna. (T9A10)
The length of a dipole antenna is actually about 5% shorter than the value that you would calculate using the formula wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency in megahertz. The reason for this is that the velocity of a radio wave through wire is lower than the velocity of the wave in free space. Consequently, the approximate length of a 6 meter 1/2-wavelength wire dipole antenna is 112 inches. (T9A09) To make a dipole antenna resonant on a higher frequency, you would shorten it. (T9A05)
Perhaps the second-most popular type of amateur radio antenna is the quarter-wave vertical antenna. For vertical antennas, the electric field is perpendicular to the Earth. (T9A02) This makes them vertically-polarized antennas. The approximate length of a quarter-wavelength vertical antenna for 146 MHz is 19 inches. (T9A08)
Because HF antennas can be very long, many amateurs use a technique called “loading” to shorten them. Loading, when referring to an antenna, means inserting an inductor in the radiating portion of the antenna to make it electrically longer. (T9A14)
Another popular type of antenna is the beam antenna. A beam antenna is an antenna that concentrates signals in one direction. (T9A01) The quad, Yagi, and dish antennas are directional antennas. (T9A06) The gain of an antenna is the increase in signal strength in a specified direction when compared to a reference antenna. (T9A11)
Most hand-held VHF and UHF transceivers come with what’s called a “rubber duck” antenna. A disadvantage of the “rubber duck” antenna supplied with most handheld radio transceivers is that it does not transmit or receive as effectively as a full-sized antenna. (T9A04) A good reason not to use a “rubber duck” antenna inside your car is that signals can be significantly weaker than when it is outside of the vehicle. (T9A07)
A better option is to use an externally-mounted antenna. VHF or UHF mobile antennas are often mounted in the center of the vehicle roof because a roof mounted antenna normally provides the most uniform radiation pattern. (T9A13) Many mobile installations use a 5/8-wavelength vertical antenna. One reason to use a properly mounted 5/8 wavelength antenna for VHF or UHF mobile service is that it offers a lower angle of radiation and more gain than a 1/4 wavelength antenna and usually provides improved coverage. (T9A12)
Make your loop antenna multi-band.
Mark Strait @KD8BIG
the antenna I have is for 160 meters. I built. Only took a few days. The “No-Excuses” 160 Meter Vertical (As… fb.me/SiWDpEU8
This is rather disheartening news.
There’s so much good stuff on my Twitter feed this afternoon, I couldn’t limit myself to just three Tweets…Dan
DX World @DX_World
VK0GB – Casey Base, Antarctica: Gerry, VK0GB (G3WIP) is located at Casey Base, Antarctica until February 2014…. bit.ly/1beTklH
Fake Science @FakeScience
Someone forgot to put “Saltine” on this copy of the Periodic Table.
Peter Goodhall @2e0sql
Amsat-UK have released a handbook for the FUNcube-1 satellite, the launch date is rapidly approaching 13 days to go! wp.me/p3TuHs-kE
This just in from our Section Manager….Dan
Here is an important update from our State Government Liaison, Ed Hude, WA8QJE on the status of the PRB-1 project here in Michigan.
On September 17, 2013, Senators Rick Jones and David Robinson introduced Senate Bill Number 493. The bill was referred to the Committee on Energy and Technology. Currently, Senate Bill 493 has not been acted upon and is still in the Committee on Energy and Technology.
This is where I need your help. I am asking that each and every one of you contact the Committee Chair, Mike Nofs and the Committee Members to encourage them to take action on this bill. The best way for this to happen is by sending an email message to Senator Nofs and to the members of the Energy and Technology Committee.
The following is a suggestion as to what to include in your message. If you deviate from this message, please be respectful and communicate in a professional tone. Here are the email addresses to use and instructions on how to get your message to the Senators of the committee.
- Senator Mike Nofs: email@example.com
- Senator John Proos: SenJProos@senate.michigan.gov
- Senator Rick Jones: SenRJones@senate.michigan.gov
- Senator Jim Marleau: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Senator Tonya Schuitmaker: (Phone 517 373-0793) [web contact form]
- Senator Howard Walker: (Phone 517-373-2413) [web contact form]
- Senator Hoon-Yung Hopgood: (Phone 517 -373-7800) [web contact form]
- Senator Steven M Bieda: (Phone 517-373-8360) [web contact form]
- Senator Coleman Young II: (Phone 517-373-9320) [web contact form]
PLEASE NOTE THAT IF THERE IS A LINK TO A WEB CONTACT FORM AFTER THE SENATOR’S NAME, YOU MUST GO TO THEIR WEBSITE TO SEND THE MESSAGE. ALTERNATELY, YOU CAN SEND A FAX OR WRITTEN LETTER.
You do not need to be a licensed operator to send this message. Even your spouse can send a message. (Just be sure to not place a call sign in the signature if he/she is not an amateur.) Let’s work together and get this moving forward!!! Thank you.
SUBJECT: SB 0493
I am asking that you please give consideration to scheduling SB 0493 for review and passage within the Committee of Energy and Technology. Senate Bill 0493 if passed will recognize the Federal Communications Commission pre-emption of PRB-1. This will help all licensed Amateur Radio Operators across the State of Michigan, especially in the times of needed emergency communications. Your assistance as well as that of the Committee members is urgently needed.
(Name) (Call sign)
Now, those are some towers!
Jeff Davis @ke9v
ZEN AND THE ART OF RADIOTELEGRAPHY – free download qsl.net/ik0ygj/enu/ind…
Sverre Holm, LA3ZA @LA3ZA
Studies on Morse code recognition . – A low pitch frequency is beneficial la3za.blogspot.no/2013/10/studie