Extra Class question of the day: Amplifiers

There are several classifications of amplifiers, based on their mode of operation. In a class A amplifier is always conducting current. That means that the bias of a Class A common emitter amplifier would normally be set approximately half-way between saturation and cutoff on the load line. (E7B04)

In a class B amplifer, there are normally two transistors operating in a “push-pull” configuration. One transistor turns on during the positive half of a cycle, while the other turns on during the negative half. Push-pull amplifiers reduce or eliminate even-order harmonics. (E7B06)

A Class AB amplifier operates over more than 180 degrees but less than 360 degrees of a signal cycle. (E7B01) Class B and Class AB amplifiers are more efficient than Class A amplifiers.

A Class D amplifier is a type of amplifier that uses switching technology to achieve high efficiency. (E7B02) The output of a class D amplifier circuit includes a low-pass filter to remove switching signal components. (E7B03)

Amplifiers are used in many different applications, but one application that is especially important, at least as far as signal quality goes, is RF power amplification. RF power amplifiers may emit harmonics or spurious signals, that may cause harmful interference.

One thing that can be done to prevent unwanted oscillations in an RF power amplifier is to install parasitic suppressors and/or neutralize the stage. (E7B05) An RF power amplifier be neutralized by feeding a 180-degree out-of-phase portion of the output back to the input. (E7B08) Another thing one can do to reduce unwanted emissions is to use a push-pull amplifier. Signal distortion and excessive bandwidth is a likely result when a Class C amplifier is used to amplify a single-sideband phone signal. (E7B07)

While most modern transceivers use transistors in their final amplifiers, and the output impedance is 50 ohms over a wide frequency range. A field effect transistor is generally best suited for UHF or microwave power amplifier applications. (E7B21)

Many high-power amplifiers, however, still use vacuum tubes. These amplifiers require that the operator tune the output circuit. The tuning capacitor is adjusted for minimum plate current, while the loading capacitor is adjusted for maximum permissible plate current is how the loading and tuning capacitors are to be adjusted when tuning a vacuum tube RF power amplifier that employs a pi-network output circuit. (E7B09)

Figure E7-1

The type of circuit shown in Figure E7-1 is a common emitter amplifier. (E7B12) In Figure E7-1, the purpose of R1 and R2 is to provide fixed bias. (E7B10) In Figure E7-1, what is the purpose of R3  is to provide self bias. (E7B11)

Figure E7-2

In Figure E7-2, the purpose of R is to provide emitter load. (E7B13) In Figure E7-2, the purpose of C2 is to provide output coupling. (E7B14)

Thermal runaway is one problem that can occur if a transistor amplifier is not designed correctly. What happens is that when the ambient temperature increases, the leakage current of the transistor increases, causing an increase in the collector-to-emitter current. This increases the power dissipation, further increasing the junction temperature, which increases yet again the leakage current. One way to prevent thermal runaway in a bipolar transistor amplifier is to use a resistor in series with the emitter. (E7B15)

RF power amplifers often generate unwanted signals via a process called intermodulation. Strong signals external to the transmitter combine with the signal being generated, causing sometimes unexpected and unwanted emissions. The effect of intermodulation products in a linear power amplifier is the transmission of spurious signals. E7B16() Third-order intermodulation distortion products are of particular concern in linear power amplifiers because they are relatively close in frequency to the desired signal. (E7B17)

Finally, there are several questions on special-application amplifiers. A klystron is a VHF, UHF, or microwave vacuum tube that uses velocity modulation. (E7B19) A parametric amplifier is a low-noise VHF or UHF amplifier relying on varying reactance for amplification. (E7B20)

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